What do the colon and rectum mean?

The colon and rectum are parts of the gastrointestinal tract and form a long muscular tube called the large intestine. The beginning of the large intestine is called the colon. Also, the end of the large intestine is called the rectum. Food digested by the small intestine enters the colon. The colon reabsorbs water and nutrients and stores the residue in the form of feces. That passes through the colon to the rectum and then excreted through the anus.

What does colonoscopy mean?

A test colonoscopy is to diagnose changes or abnormalities in the colon and rectum. Colonoscopy is one of the most common methods for detecting and sampling polyps.

How is a colonoscopy performed?

During a colonoscopy, a long, flexible tube will insert into the rectum (rectum). There is a small video camera at the top of the wire that allows the doctor to see the inside of the entire large intestine well. During a colonoscopy, the specialist can remove other abnormal tissues of the polyp if that is essential. Also, the doctor can extract sample tissues (biopsies) during a colonoscopy.


When should a colonoscopy be performed?

Colonoscopy can be for the following reasons:

Check for signs and symptoms of bowel movements. A colonoscopy can help your doctor identify possible causes for abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, chronic constipation, chronic diarrhea, and other bowel problems.

Check for colon cancer: If you are over 50 years old and at moderate risk for cancer, your doctor may recommend a colonoscopy every ten years or sooner. Colonoscopy is one of the available options for diagnosing colon cancer. Talk to your doctor about other options available.

Check for more polyps: If you already have a polyp, your doctor may use a colonoscopy to check for or remove extra polyps. That helps reduce the risk of colon cancer.

Colorectal polyps: Polyps grow in the inner wall of the large intestine or rectum. It is common in men over 50 years old. Most polyps are benign (noncancerous), but some polyps (adenomas) become cancerous. Identifying and removing polyps reduces the risk of colorectal cancer.

Familial adenomatous polyps, which are inherited and rare and are by a change in a specific gene called APC, cause hundreds of polyps in the rectum and colon that, if left untreated by age 40, can eventually lead to cancer. Colorectal lead. This type of cancer accounts for 1% of all colorectal cancers.

Family members must have specific genetic tests done to control genetic changes. The medical team suggests ways to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer or early detection in people who have changes in their genes. For example, your doctor may recommend surgery to remove part of your bowel or rectum.


Risks and complications of colonoscopy

Colonoscopy has a little risk. Rarely, colonoscopic complications may include the following:

Adverse reactions to sedatives used during the test

Bleeding from the site where the biopsy or the polyp and other abnormal tissue removed

Rupture of the wall of the large intestine or rectum

After discussing the risks of a colonoscopy, your gastroenterologist will ask you to sign a consent form.

How to prepare for a colonoscopy?

The colon needs to be clean before colonoscopy. Any residue in the colon may prevent the intestines and rectum from being seen during the test. Your doctor may ask you to do the following to empty your bowel:

Follow a special diet the day before the test: Usually, you should not eat solids the day before the test. Also, you should limit drinks to light liquids such as water, tea, and coffee without milk or cream. Also, avoid drinking liquids that are red and will interfere with the colonoscopy during the test. The night before the test, you should not eat anything after midnight.

Use a laxative: Your doctor may ask you to take a laxative. You can use laxatives or liquids. You can use the laxative the night before the test or at night and in the morning.

Adjust your medications: Tell your doctor about any prescriptions at least one week before the test. In case that you have a specific problem, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, heart problems, you should talk to your gastroenterologist.

In case that you are taking iron-containing medicines or taking aspirin, warfarin, and anticoagulants, you should talk with your doctor.

You may need to adjust the amount of medication you take or temporarily stop taking it.

During a colonoscopy

During a colonoscopy

During a colonoscopy, you should usually not wear anything other than specific clothing.  Specialists will also recommend Sedatives in most cases. Mild sedatives are sometimes available in pill form. In other cases, the sedative is combined with an analgesic to minimize the effects of a colonoscopy. You should lie on your side and bring your knees to your chest.

Your doctor will insert a colonoscope into your rectum. The scope (which is as long as your bowel) includes a lamp and a tube. That allows the doctor to pump air into the large intestine. The air causes the intestines to swell, allowing the doctor to see the intestinal tract well. You may experience abdominal pain or defecation when the scope is moving. The colonoscope contains a small video camera. The camera sends the resulting images to an external monitor so the doctor can see the inside of the gut wall. The doctor can insert a tool into the canal (tube) to take a sample tissue or remove polyps and other abnormal tissue. A colonoscopy usually takes 20 minutes to an hour.

After colonoscopy

After colonoscopy

After the test, it usually takes an hour for the sedative effect to go away. You may need someone to take you home. In this case, it is better not to drive yourself and do not go to work. If your doctor removes a polyp during a colonoscopy, you may temporarily need a special diet. You may have bloating or nausea for a few hours after the test. Walking can relieve your pain and discomfort. Besides, you may notice blood after the test. That is usually not very alarming. You should consult your doctor if bleeding and blood clots continue or you have a fever and chills.

Colonoscopy test results

Your doctor will review the test results and then share them with you.

Negative result:

If the doctor cannot find any abnormalities during your colonoscopy, the result will be considered Negative. If you are at moderate risk for colon cancer, your doctor may recommend that you wait a few years and repeat the test. If there are residues of substances in your gut that prevent the abdomen from being seen, it is best to repeat the test.

Positive result:

A colonoscopy is positive when your doctor finds abnormal polyps or tissue in the bowel. A large number of polyps are not malignant, but some can be. A polyp that leaves the body during a colonoscopy will be available to a lab for analysis. Depending on the volume and quantity of polyps, you might require tracking a more comprehensive screening plan in the prospect.

If your doctor finds one or two polyps less than 10.16 mm, it is sufficient to repeat the test every 5 to 10 years. If your polyps are not small, your doctor may recommend another colonoscopy every three to five years. That also depends on risk factors. If the doctor removes cancerous polyps during a colonoscopy, your doctor may recommend a colonoscopy every three to six months. If there is a polyp or other abnormal tissue that colonoscopy didn’t remove, your doctor may recommend a repeat test.

Problems you may have with the test

If your gastroenterologist is concerned about the scope quality, he or she may recommend a repeat colonoscopy. If your doctor cannot move the scope across the colon, he or she may recommend a virtual barium enema colonoscopy to examine the rest of the colon.

How long does a colonoscopy take?

Many people want to know how to plan for a colonoscopy day, specifically for the procedure. That schedule is pivotal not only for sufferers but also for caregivers who follow them for a colonoscopy.

A colonoscopy usually takes 30-60 minutes, depending on whether your doctor needs to remove the polyp or biopsy. However, patients and caregivers should spend 2-3 hours in the hospital or endoscopy center to spend time preparing and recovering.


What happens during a colonoscopy?

About 30-60 minutes before the colonoscopy, the patient gets dressed and starts an IV nurse. Your doctor or nurse will look at what happens during this process and any danger that occurs. Then, the doctor will give the patient a light sedative pill or IV. Due to sedation, the patient is unlikely to recall the colonoscopy.

After completing this procedure, the patient needs to recover from sedation approximately 30-60 minutes before getting dressed and leaving the building. As a final step before leaving, the doctor reviews what they found during the colonoscopy and discusses the next steps.

If the doctor removes the polyps or uses tissue samples (biopsies), they are sent to a lab to detect as benign, precancerous, or cancerous. In cases where the polyp or growth is too large to be removed during a colonoscopy, your doctor may recommend that you see a specialist or surgeon who can do this. In these cases, your doctor may recommend that you stay on a low-fat diet for a while.

The side effects of sedation can last up to a day, and patients can not get home until the side effects are completely gone. During the rest of the day following a colonoscopy, the patient feels bloated and gasps. Because the air clear from the large intestine.

Colonoscopy stages

30-60 minutes for direct preoperative patient preparation

30-60 minutes for self-colonoscopy

30-60 minutes for recovery in hospital or endoscopy center directly after surgery

If you use general anesthesia, you will be asleep at all stages and wake up after it is over. If you do not have general anesthesia, the specialist will give you local anesthesia in which an endoscope will be to numb the area and make the procedure easier. It will take about 10 to 15 minutes.

Colonoscopy is an outpatient procedure in a hospital that examines the large intestine from the inside. Colonoscopy is usually available to evaluate gastrointestinal symptoms such as bleeding in the intestines and anus, abdominal pain, or a change in a person’s digestive habits. The test is also essential for asymptomatic people who have polyps or cancer. This test is crucial for people 50 years old and older. Those who have a sibling, parent, or child with colorectal cancer are other candidates for colonoscopy. Colonoscopy takes between 30 and 60 minutes.

Frequently Asked Questions About Colonoscopy

  1. What is a colonoscopy?

In a colonoscopy, the doctor uses a colonoscope to look at the colon and rectum. Colonoscopy can also detect polyps in the early stages of cancer.

  1. When is a colonoscopy recommended?
  • People who have had polyps or colorectal cancer in the past
  • People who have had a loved one with colorectal cancer

Inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis

  1. Is a colonoscopy painful?

Since this procedure must be under anesthesia, the person will not feel any pain.

  1. What measures must be before the colonoscopy?

Performing colonoscopy, the colon must be completely clean to allow easy viewing. Avoid solid foods the day before the colonoscopy.

Drink liquids, water, coffee, and ice cream a few hours before. Note that consuming red juices may be confused with blood in the colon.

Do not eat fiber-rich foods for a week before a colonoscopy.

  1. How long does a colonoscopy take?

Colonoscopy is a procedure that is in a short time. This procedure takes about 20 minutes, which varies from patient to patient.

What happens if a polyp is visible during a colonoscopy?

If you notice polyps or any other abnormalities, your doctor may order a biopsy or remove the polyps during a colonoscopy.

  1. What is the reason for the importance of colonoscopy?

This test prevents colorectal cancer because the doctor can detect polyps in the early stages. If the polyps are small and have not spread, treatment is easy and successful.

  1. What procedures are essential after a colonoscopy?

People usually do not feel uncomfortable after a colonoscopy. The person may have to bloat due to air entering the intestine. Because this procedure is with medications that make you feel drowsy, it is best to avoid driving or doing activities that require more attention and concentration.